The Remediation of Congo Red-Contaminated Groundwater by using a Permeable Reactive Barrier Through Modified Waterworks Sludge MgAl-LDH

Authors

  • Sudad Adil Salih Department of Chemical Engineering/ University of Baghdad/ Baghdad/ Iraq
  • Tariq M. Naife Department of Chemical Engineering/ University of Baghdad/ Baghdad/ Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22153/kej.2023.07.001

Abstract

This investigation aims to explore the potential of waterworks sludge (WS), low-cost byproduct of water treatment processes, as a sorbent for removing Congo Red (CR) dyes. This will be achieved by precipitating nano-sized (MgAl-LDH)-layered double hydroxide onto the surface of the sludge. The efficiency of utilizing MgAl-LDH to modify waterworks sludge (MWS) for use in permeable reactive barrier technology was confirmed through analysis with Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The isotherm model was employed to elucidate the adsorption mechanisms involved in the process. Furthermore, the COMSOL model was utilized to establish a continuous testing model for the analysis of contaminant transport under diverse conditions. A strong correlation was indicated, with a coefficient of determination (R2) ≥ 0.97, when the model's predictions were compared to experimental values, indicating the accuracy of the model. Continuous transport exhibited earlier breakthrough points when the bed depth decreased and the initial concentration and flow rate increased.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

A. A. H. Faisal, L. A. Naji, A. A. Chaudhary, and B. Saleh, “Removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from contaminated groundwater using waste foundry sand in the permeable reactive barrier,” Desalin. WATER Treat., vol. 230, pp. 227–239, 2021.

A. A. H. Faisal, Z. A. Al-Ridah, L. A. Naji, M. Naushad, and H. A. El-Serehy, “Waste Foundry Sand as Permeable and Low Permeable Barrier for Restriction of the Propagation of Lead and Nickel Ions in Groundwater,” J. Chem., vol. 2020, pp. 1–13, Jul. 2020.

D. N. Ahmed, A. A. H. Faisal, S. H. Jassam, L. A. Naji, and M. Naushad, “Kinetic Model for pH Variation Resulted from Interaction of Aqueous Solution Contaminated with Nickel Ions and Cement Kiln Dust,” J. Chem., vol. 2020, pp. 1–11, Apr. 2020.

A. A. H. Faisal, H. K. Jasim, L. A. Naji, M. Naushad, and T. Ahamad, “Cement kiln dust-sand permeable reactive barrier for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved benzene,” Sep. Sci. Technol., pp. 1–14, Apr. 2020.

L. A. Naji, A. A. H. Faisal, H. M. Rashid, M. Naushad, and T. Ahamad, “Environmental remediation of synthetic leachate produced from sanitary landfills using low-cost composite sorbent,” Environ. Technol. Innov., vol. 175, p. 100680, Feb. 2020.

L. A. Naji, S. H. Jassam, M. J. Yaseen, A. A. H. Faisal, and N. Al-Ansari, “Modification of Langmuir model for simulating initial pH and temperature effects on sorption process,” Sep. Sci. Technol., vol. 55, no. 15, pp. 2729–2736, Aug. 2020.

J. Z. Dhamin and N. S. Majeed, “Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater using bulk liquid membrane technique enhanced by electrical potential,” 2022, p. 020112.

S. Sonal, A. Singh, and B. K. Mishra, “Decolorization of reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by zirconium oxychloride as a novel coagulant: optimization through response surface methodology,” Water Sci. Technol., vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 379–389, Aug. 2018.

M. H. Rashid and A. H. A. Faisal, “Removal Of Dissolved Cadmium Ions from Contaminated Wastewater using Raw Scrap Zero-Valent Iron And Zero Valent Aluminum as Locally Available and Inexpensive Sorbent Wastes,” Iraqi J. Chem. Pet. Eng., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 39–45, 2018.

K. Sahoo, S. K. Paikra, M. Mishra, and H. Sahoo, “Amine functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, antibacterial activity and rapid removal of Congo red dye,” J. Mol. Liq., vol. 282, pp. 428–440, May 2019.

N. S. Majeed, “Inverse fluidized bed for chromium ions removal from wastewater and produced water using peanut shells as adsorbent,” in 2017 International Conference on Environmental Impacts of the Oil and Gas Industries: Kurdistan Region of Iraq as a Case Study (EIOGI), 2017, pp. 9–14.

Bassim Hameed Graimed and Z. T. A. Ali, “Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Bentonite and Activated Carbon,” Al-Khwarizmi Eng. J., vol. 9, pp. 48–56, 2013.

P. Frid, S. V. Anisimov, and N. Popovic, “Congo Red and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases,” Brain Res Rev, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 135–160, 2007.

R. Gopinathan, J. Kanhere, and J. Banerjee, “Effect of malachite green toxicity on non target soil organisms,” Chemosphere, vol. 120, pp. 637–644, Feb. 2015.

J. Duan et al., “Synthesis of a novel flocculant on the basis of crosslinked Konjac glucomannan-graft-polyacrylamide-co-sodium xanthate and its application in removal of Cu2+ ion,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 436–441, Apr. 2010.

M. Naushad, T. Ahamad, B. M. Al-Maswari, A. Abdullah Alqadami, and S. M. Alshehri, “Nickel ferrite bearing nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as efficient adsorbent for the removal of highly toxic metal ion from aqueous medium,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 330, pp. 1351–1360, Dec. 2017.

A. Gürses, A. Hassani, M. Kıranşan, Ö. Açışlı, and S. Karaca, “Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using by untreated lignite as potential low-cost adsorbent: Kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium approach,” J. Water Process Eng., vol. 2, pp. 10–21, 2014.

M. W. Khalid and S. D. Salman, “Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution onto Sawdust Activated Carbon,” Al-Khwarizmi Eng. J., vol. 15, pp. 60–69, 2019.

C. Allègre, P. Moulin, M. Maisseu, and F. Charbit, “Treatment and reuse of reactive dyeing effluents,” J. Memb. Sci., vol. 269, no. 1–2, pp. 15–34, Feb. 2006.

A. Sharma, Z. M. Siddiqui, S. Dhar, P. Mehta, and D. Pathania, “Adsorptive removal of congo red dye (CR) from aqueous solution by Cornulaca monacantha stem and biomass-based activated carbon: isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics,” Sep. Sci. Technol., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 916–929, Apr. 2019.

S. Husien, A. Labena, E. F. El-Belely, H. M. Mahmoud, and A. S. Hamouda, “Adsorption studies of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] on micro-scale biomass of Sargassum dentifolium, Seaweed,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng., vol. 7, no. 6, p. 103444, Dec. 2019.

U.-J. Kim, S. Kimura, and M. Wada, “Highly enhanced adsorption of Congo red onto dialdehyde cellulose-crosslinked cellulose-chitosan foam,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 214, pp. 294–302, Jun. 2019.

S. Sultana et al., “Adsorption of crystal violet dye by coconut husk powder: Isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics perspectives,” Environ. Nanotechnology, Monit. Manag., vol. 17, p. 100651, May 2022.

N. Saad, Z. T. Abd Ali, L. A. Naji, A. A. A. H. Faisal, and N. Al-Ansari, “Development of Bi-Langmuir model on the sorption of cadmium onto waste foundry sand: Effects of initial pH and temperature,” Environ. Eng. Res., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 677–684, Sep. 2019.

S. Lucas, M. J. Cocero, C. Zetzl, and G. Brunner, “Adsorption isotherms for ethylacetate and furfural on activated carbon from supercritical carbon dioxide,” Fluid Phase Equilib., 2004.

L. Elango, numerical simulation groundwater flow and solute transport., Allied Pub. 2005.

S. Piazza, E. J. M. Blokker, G. Freni, V. Puleo, and M. Sambito, “Impact of diffusion and dispersion of contaminants in water distribution networks modelling and monitoring,” Water Supply, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 46–58, Feb. 2020.

C. W. Fetter, Contaminant hydrogeology, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1999.

D. W. Blowes et al., “In situ permeable reactive barrier for the treatment of hexavalent chromium and trichloroethylene in ground water,” Washington, D.C., 1999.

A. A. H. Faisal, M. B. Abdul-Kareem, A. K. Mohammed, M. Naushad, A. A. Ghfar, and T. Ahamad, “Humic acid coated sand as a novel sorbent in permeable reactive barrier for environmental remediation of groundwater polluted with copper and cadmium ions,” J. Water Process Eng., vol. 36, no. April, p. 101373, Aug. 2020.

Z. An, K. Grala, A. Panchal, and K. Trivedi, “Investigating graphene oxide permeable reactive barriers for filtering groundwater contaminated from hydraulic fracturing,” Univ. Ottawa Sci. Undergrad. Res. J., vol. 1, p. 55, Aug. 2018.

B. Barnett et al., Australian groundwater modelling guidelines. 2012.

M. A. Hossain and D. R. Yonge, “Linear Finite-Element Modeling of Contaminant Transport in Ground Water,” J. Environ. Eng., vol. 123, no. 11, pp. 1126–1135, Nov. 1997.

L. Ujfaludi, “Longitudinal dispersion tests in non-uniform porous media,” Hydrol. Sci. J., vol. 31, pp. 467–474, 1986.

P. Chaunsali and S. Peethamparan, “Evolution of strength, microstructure and mineralogical composition of a CKD–GGBFS binder,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 197–208, Feb. 2011.

D. N. Ahmed, L. A. Naji, A. A. H. Faisal, N. Al-Ansari, and M. Naushad, “Waste foundry sand/MgFe-layered double hydroxides composite material for efficient removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution,” Sci. Rep., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 2042, Dec. 2020.

K. Wang, S. P. Shah, and A. Mishulovich, “Effects of curing temperature and NaOH addition on hydration and strength development of clinker-free CKD-fly ash binders,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 299–309, Feb. 2004.

R. N. Panda, M. F. Hsieh, R. J. Chung, and T. S. Chin, “FTIR, XRD, SEM and solid state NMR investigations of carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite nano-particles synthesized by hydroxide-gel technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 193–199, Feb. 2003.

D. N. Ahmed, L. A. Naji, A. A. H. Faisal, N. Al-Ansari, and M. Naushad, “Waste foundry sand/MgFe-layered double hydroxides composite material for efficient removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution,” Sci. Rep., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 2042, Dec. 2020.

A. A. H. Faisal and L. A. Naji, “Simulation of Ammonia Nitrogen Removal from Simulated Wastewater by Sorption onto Waste Foundry Sand Using Artificial Neural Network,” Assoc. Arab Univ. J. Eng. Sci., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 28–34, Mar. 2019.

N. Jawad and T. M. Naife, “Mathematical Modeling and Kinetics of Removing Metal Ions from Industrial Wastewater,” Iraqi J. Chem. Pet. Eng., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 59–69, Dec. 2022.

Q. G. Finish and T. M. Naife, “Adsorption Desulfurization of Iraqi Light Naphtha Using Metals Modified Activated Carbon,” J. Eng., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 24 – 41, Jun. 2021.

Q. Chen, D. Yin, S. Zhu, and X. Hu, “Adsorption of cadmium(II) on humic acid coated titanium dioxide,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 367, no. 1, pp. 241–248, Feb. 2012.

P. Liao et al., “Adsorption of tetracycline and chloramphenicol in aqueous solutions by bamboo charcoal: A batch and fixed-bed column study,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 228, pp. 496–505, Jul. 2013.

Z. Aksu and F. Gönen, “Biosorption of phenol by immobilized activated sludge in a continuous packed bed: prediction of breakthrough curves,” Process Biochem., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 599–613, Jan. 2004.

D. C. K. Ko, J. F. Porter, and G. McKay, “Optimised correlations for the fixed-bed adsorption of metal ions on bone char,” Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 55, no. 23, pp. 5819–5829, Dec. 2000.

S. Kundu and A. K. Gupta, “As(III) removal from aqueous medium in fixed bed using iron oxide-coated cement (IOCC): Experimental and modeling studies,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 129, no. 1–3, pp. 123–131, May 2007.

M. H. Marzbali and M. Esmaieli, “Fixed bed adsorption of tetracycline on a mesoporous activated carbon: Experimental study and neuro-fuzzy modeling,” J. Appl. Res. Technol., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 454–463, Oct. 2017.

Downloads

Published

2023-12-01

How to Cite

The Remediation of Congo Red-Contaminated Groundwater by using a Permeable Reactive Barrier Through Modified Waterworks Sludge MgAl-LDH . (2023). Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 19(4), 16-28. https://doi.org/10.22153/kej.2023.07.001