Removal of Dissolved Trivalent Chromium Ions from Contaminated Wastewater using Locally Available Raw Scrap Iron-Aluminum Waste

  • Hayder M. Rashid Department of Environmental Engineering / College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad
  • Ayad A. H. Faisal Department of Environmental Engineering / College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad
Keywords: Aluminum, Equilibrium, Langmuir, Sorption, Scrap iron, Scanning electron microscopy.


The present study is to investigate the possibility of using wastes in the form of scrap iron (ZVI) and/ or aluminum ZVAI for the detention and immobilization of the chromium ions in simulated wastewater. Different batch equilibrium parameters such as contact time (0-250) min, sorbent dose (2-8 g ZVI/100 mL and 0.2-1 g ZVAI/100 mL), initial pH (3-6), initial pollutant concentration of 50 mg/L, and speed of agitation (0-250) rpm were investigated. Maximum contaminant removal efficiency corresponding to (96 %) at 250 min contact time, 1g ZVAI/ 6g ZVI sorbent mass ratio, pH 5.5, pollutant concentration of 50 mg/L initially, and 250 rpm agitation speed were obtained.

The best isotherm model for the batch single Cr(III) uptake by ZVI and / or ZVAI sorbent was found to follow Langmuir (I) with corresponding R2greater than 0.9115. Kinetics data for the sorption of Cr(III) onto ZVAI/ZVI mixture and due to the good agreement between the fitted and the experimental results; the data was found to obey the pseudo second order model at which the chemisorptions mechanism was the most dominant in the sorption process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the ZVI and ZVAI has revealed highly surface changes and saturation by contaminant and apparent pores blockage that hindered and ceased the sorption process.



Download data is not yet available.


Hee K., Samonski B., HuwaH., 2005, "Heavy metals pollution, sources, impact, receptors", John Whylie Publications, 9th ed., USA.

Gibert P., Romankova J., Elline S., 2013, "Effect of filling materials for in situ PRB's on acid mine drainage treatment", Journal of Chemical Technology, vol 58, pp. 112-125.

Adamcova Y., Shirinkov, B., Semonski B., 2017"Agricultural surface runoffs infiltration and contamination impacts on groundwater", Journal of Agricultural Science, vol 54, pp.34-85.

Arruti I., Fernandez B., Olmo A, Irabien J., 2010," Evaluation of the contribution of local sources to trace metals levels in urban areas of the contaminated sites of Northern Spain", Journal of Hazardous Waste, pp.1451-1458.

Di Natal., Radziemska, A. Ridoškova, S.A. Bartoň, P. Pelcova, J.Elbl, J.Kynicky, M. Brtnicky, M.D. Vaverkova," Environmental assessment of the effects of heavy metals on human and echosystem", Journal of Chemosphere, vol.185, pp.234-268

Powell D., Blowes R., Gillham D., Schultz T., Sivavec R, 1998, "Permeable reactive barrier technologies for contaminant remediation", EPA/600/R–98/125.

Navarro J.M., Chimenos D., Muntaner A.I., Fernandez, 2006, " Permeable reactive barriers for the removal of heavy metals: lab–scale experiments with low–grade magnesium oxide", Ground water, R., 26, 142-152.

Ludwig R., Smith D., Spink L.E., Wilkin, 2009, "Treatment of arsenic, heavy metals, and acidity using mixed ZVI-compost PRB", Environmental Science & Technology 43, 1970-1976.

Plagentz, V., Ebert M., Dahmke A., 2006, "Remediation of ground water containing chlorinated and brominates hydrocarbons, benzene and chromate by sequential treatment using ZVI and GAC", Environmental Geology 49, 684-695

Huang L., Liu F., Yang Y., Kong X., Zhang Y, 2015, "Ammonium-nitrogen contaminated groundwater remediation by a sequential three-zone permeable reactive barrier with oxygen-releasing compound (ORC)/clinoptilolite/spongy iron: column studies", Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22, 3705-3714.

Chang M., Wang K., and Chin R., 2001, “Sorption of copper and chromium onto lateritic silty-clay soils ", Journal of chemosphere.

Lien H.L. and Wilkin R.T., 2004, "High-level arsenite removal from groundwater by zero-valent iron", Journal of Chemosphere, vol 29, pp 58-86

Gonzalez J.R., Walton J.C., 2009," Adsorption of Cr(III) from aqueous solution onto Agave lechuguilla biomass, study of the advective and dispersive transport", Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol 15, pp 234-512.

Chalermyanont, V., Nayomatt G., Salmatehi Y., 2013, "The performance of ZVI and activated sludge - PRBs in the treatment of groundwater contaminated with heavy metals", Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol 24, pp 34-52.

Shaban A. and Abd Al Aziz Y., 2015, "Removal of chromium and red dye from simulated wastewater by adsorption onto cement kiln dust", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Baghdad, Department of Environmental Engineering.

Han W., Brian T., Kim O., 2016, "Studies on the optimum conditions using acid washed zero-valent iron/ zero–valent aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater", Journal of Hazardous Materials.

Ho Y., McKay G., Porter J., 2002,"Equilibrium isotherm studies for the sorption of divalent metal ions onto peat: copper, nickel, and lead single component systems", Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 141, pp 1-33

Hameed A., Bessam H., 2016, "Modeling of the sorption isotherm systems", Chemical Engineering Journal, pp. 23-44.

Shawn H., Chu, W., Xian P., 2000, "Treatment of inorganic chemicals using PRB remediation techniques", Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 23, pp. 52-78

Puls R. and Guy S., 2003, "Permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of inorganic chemicals", EPA 712, (R-102), 34.

How to Cite
Rashid, H., & Faisal, A. (2019). Removal of Dissolved Trivalent Chromium Ions from Contaminated Wastewater using Locally Available Raw Scrap Iron-Aluminum Waste. Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 15(1), 134- 143.