Efficiency Enhancement of a Dual-axis Solar PV Panel Tracker Using Water-Flow Double Glazing Technique

  • Farag Mahel Mohammed
  • Jamal Abdul-Kareem Mohammed Department of Electromechanical Engineering / University of Technology / Baghdad/ Iraq
  • Rasha Ali Nouri Department of Electromechanical Engineering / University of Technology / Baghdad/ Iraq
Keywords: Dual-axis, PV panel, solar tracker, WFDG system, optical filte, efficiency.


The fall angle of sun rays on the surface of a photovoltaic PV panel and its temperature is negatively affecting the panel electrical energy produced and efficiency. The fall angle problem was commonly solved by using a dual-axis solar tracker that continually maintains the panel orthogonally positioning to the sun rays all day long. This leads to maximum absorption for solar radiation necessary to produce maximum amount of energy and maintain high level of electrical efficiency. To solve the PV panel temperature problem, a Water-Flow Double Glazing WFDG technique has been introduced as a new cooling tool to reduce the panel temperature. In this paper, an integration design of the water glazing system with a dual-axis tracker has been accomplished and experimentally tested in order to enhance the PV panel efficiency, especially at hot climates. The proposed glazing system can simultaneously perform two functions, firstly, working as a cooling tool for reducing the stored heat in the PV panel during its work and secondly as an optical filter for sun light spectrum. Optimum design factors with their levels for the glazing system were calculated according to Taguchi method. Test experiments were carried out in Baghdad city on the 20th and 21st July 2016 on the tracker with and without using the WFDG system. The obtained results show that, the PV panel temperature with using the WFDG system was significantly dropped by 44% and its efficiency increased maximally by 36.6% at solar irradiance of 1213W/m2 as compared with conventional one.


Download data is not yet available.


Dubey, S., Sarvaiya, J. N. and Seshadri, B. 2013. Temperature Dependent Photovoltaic (PV) Efficiency and Its Effect on PV Production in the World A Review. PV Asia Pacific Conference 2012, Energy Procedia, Vol. 33, 311–321.

C.S. Solanki, Solar Photovoltaics: Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications, 3rd Revised Edition Prentice Hall India Learning Private Limited 2015.

T. Huld, T. Sample, E.D. Dunlop, A Simple Model for Estimating the Influence of Spectrum Variations on PV Performance, Proceedings of the 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Hamburg, Germany, September 2009, pp. 3385-3389.

F.G. Čabo, S. Nižetić, T.G. Marco, Photovoltaic Panels: A Review of the Cooling Techniques, Transactions of Famena Xl – 40(SI) (2016) 63–74.

K. Furushima, Y. Nawata, Performance evaluation of photovoltaic power generation system equipped with a cooling device utilizing siphonage, Journal Solar Energy Engineering ASME 128 (2) (2005) 146–151.

M. Abdolzadeh, M. Ameri, Improving the effectiveness of a photovoltaic water pumping system by spraying water over the front of photovoltaic cells, Renewable Energy 34 (1) (2009) 91–96.

L. Zhu, R.F. Boehm, Y. Wang, C. Halford, Y. Sun, Water immersion cooling of PV cells in a high concentration system, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 95 (2) (2011) 538–545.

P. Gang, F. Huide, Z. Huijuan, J. Jie, Performance study and parametric analysis of a novel heat pipe PV/T system, Energy 37 (1) (2012) 384–395.

M. Sh-Eldin, F.O. Alghoul, A. Abouhnik, K. Sopian, M. Ae. Muftah, Predication of air velocity in Solar Chimney using RBFNN, Proceedings – 2012 7th IEEE International Conference on Computing and Convergence Technology ICCCT 2012, Seoul, 3-5 December 2012, pp. 976 – 979.

H. Bahaidarah, A. Subhan, P. Gandhidasan, S. Rehman, Performance evaluation of a PV (photovoltaic) module by back surface water cooling for hot climatic conditions, Energy 59 (2013) 445–453.

S. Ghoshal, S. Neogi, Advance Glazing System – Energy Efficiency Approach for Buildings a Review, Energy Procedia 54 (2014) 352–358.

T.-T. Chow, C. Li, Z. Lin, Innovative solar windows for cooling-demand climate, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94 (2) (2010) 212–220.

C. Li, T.-T. Chow, Water-filled double reflective window and its year-round performance, Procedia Environmental Sciences 11(2011)1039–1047.

Handbook of Optics Vol. IV: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics, Third Edition, McGraw Hill, Inc. New York 2010.

M.A.C. Chendo, M.R. Jacobson, D.E. Osborn, Liquid and thin film-filters for hybrid solar energy conversion system, Solar & Wind Technology 4 (2) (1987) 131–138.

S.S. Joshi, A.S. Dhoble, P.R. Jiwanapurkar, Investigations of Different Liquid Based Spectrum Beam Splitters for Combined Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Systems, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 138 (2) (2016).

W.A.M. Al-Shohani, A. Sabouri, R. Al-Dadah, S. Mahmoud, H. Butt, Experimental investigation of an optical water filter for Photovoltaic/Thermal conversion module, Energy Conversion and Management, 111 (2016) 431–442.

A. Qahtan, S.P. Rao, N. Keumala, The effectiveness of the sustainable flowing water film in improving the solar–optical properties of glazing in the tropics, Energy and Buildings 77 (2014) 247–255.

G. Florides, S. Kalogirou, Ground heat exchangers – A review of systems, models and applications, Renewable Energy 32 (15) (2007) 2461-2478.

C. Zang, M.I. Friswell, J.E. Mottershead, A review of robust optimal design and its application in dynamics, Computers and Structures 83 (4) (2005) 315–326.

How to Cite
Mohammed, F., Mohammed, J., & Nouri, R. (2018). Efficiency Enhancement of a Dual-axis Solar PV Panel Tracker Using Water-Flow Double Glazing Technique. Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 14(3), 32- 47. https://doi.org/10.22153/kej.2018.12.008