Recovery of Aluminum from Industrial Waste (Slag) by Melting and Electrorefining Processes
Slag of aluminum is a residue which results during the melting process of primary and secondary aluminum production. Salt slag of aluminum is hazardous solid waste according to the European Catalogue for Hazardous Wastes. Hence, recovery of aluminum not only saves the environment, but also has advantages of financial and economic returns. In this research, aluminum was recovered and purified from the industrial wastes generated as waste from both of State Company for Electrical and Electronic Industries (Baghdad/AlWaziriya) and General Company for Mechanical Industries (Babylon/-Al-Escandria). It was found that these wastes contain tiny proportions of other elements such as iron, copper, nickel, titanium, lead, and potassium. Wastes were recovered for green sustainability, saving energy and cost effectiveness. The method applied for recovering aluminum was pyro-metallurgical method by smelting and refining. X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X- Ray diffraction techniques of the slag sample were used to determine the chemical analysis and phases, respectively. Melting experiments were conducted by using different types of fluxes (KAlF4, NaCl, KCl and AlCl3) at different percentages (0, 5, 10 %) and different melting temperatures (700, 750, 800oC). Design of Experiment (DOE) by Taguchi method, orthogonal array L9, was used in melting experiments. Melting efficiency of aluminum was equal to 84.7%. Electro-refining of aluminum was done by using anhydrous aluminum chloride and NaCl as ionic liquids at low temperature 100 ◦C in electro-refining method producing aluminum of 99% purity.
C.S. Schmitz, Handbook of Aluminum Recycling, Essen, Germany, (Vulkan Verlag), (2006)27-30.
C. Klauber, M. Gräfe and G. Power, Bauxite Residue Issues: II. Options for Residue Utilization, Hydrometallurgy, 108 (2011)11-32.
John. A.S. Green, Aluminum recycling and processing for energy conservation and sustainability, Materials Park, Ohio, United states of America, ASM International, (2007).
 aluminum recycling, J. Light Met. 2 (2002)89-93.
D. A. Pereiraa , Barroso de Aguiar , F. Castro , M .F. Almeida and J. A. Labrincha, Mechanical behaviour of Portland cement mortars with incorporation of Al-containing salt slags, Cement and Concrete Research 30(2000)1131-1138.
P. E. Tsakiridis, “Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization – A review”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 217-218(2012) pp.1-10.
Li Jinping, Hou Haobo, Gan Jinhua, Zhu Shujing, Xie Yongjie, Extraction of aluminum and iron from boiler slag by sulfuric acid, J. Natural Sciences,12(2007)541-547.
Mikito Ueda, Shiro Tsukamoto, Shoichi Konda, Toshiaki Ohtsuka, Recovery of aluminum from oxide particles in aluminum dross using AlF3-NaF-BaCl2 molten salt, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 35(2005)925–930.
Gabrielle Gaustada and Elsa Olivetti and Randolph Kirchainb, Improving Aluminum Recycling: A Survey of Sorting and Impurity Removal Technologies, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 58(2012) 79-87.
Romanita Teodorescu, Viorel Badilita, Maria Roman and Aurel Crisan , Optimization of process for total recovery of aluminum from smelting slag 2.removal of aluminum sulfate, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 13(2013)7-14.
D. Mahaboob Valli, T.K. Jindal. Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Physical Parameters Affecting the Performance of Pulse Detonation Engine. Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research, 1(2014)18-23.
J.BERUBE.Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes and C.F.J.WU., Signal-To-Noise Ratio and Related Measures In Parameter Design Optimization :An Overview. Sankhya: The Indian of Statistics, 62(2000)417-432.
Görkem Kökkülünk, Adnan Parlak, Eyup Bağci, Zafer Aydin. Application of Taguchi Methods for the Optimization of Factors Affecting Engine Performance and Emission of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Steam-injected Diesel Engines.Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 11(2014)95-106.
Srinivas Athreya, Dr Y.D.Venkatesh. Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Process Parameters in Improving the Surface Roughness of Lathe Facing Operation. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science, 1(2012)13-19.
D. Scott George, E. Totten, Handbook of Aluminum, Alloy Production and Materials Manufacturing, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2(2003).
Takehito Hiraki, Takahiro Miki, Kenichi Nakajima and Kazuyo Matsubae , Shinichiro Nakamura and Tetsuya Nagasaka, Thermodynamic Analysis for the Refining Ability of Salt Flux for Aluminum Recycling, Materials, (2014).
S.S. Akbari, Minimizing Salt and Metal Losses in Mg-Recycling through Salt Optimization and Black Dross Distillation, Dissertation, Shaker Verlag, (2011).
A. I. Krynitsky and C. M. Saeger, Jr., Effect of Melting conditions on the running quality of aluminum cast in sand molds, Part of Journal of Research of the Rational Bureau of Standards, Vol.13.
Copyright: Open Access authors retain the copyrights of their papers, and all open access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.